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       Table of Contents with Abstract

      Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology,

      Volume 24, Issue 4 (August 25, 2010), Pages 533-726

     To view the full paper in pdf format, click on 1.jpg and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.

1.

Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology 24(4):533-542, 2010

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Study of Preventing Methods for Skin Aging and Wrinkles

 

Jin Myoung Kim, Sun Woo Jeon, Woo Geon Lee, Hae Jeong Nam, Yoon Bum Kim

Department of Ophthalmology & Otolaryngology & Dermatology, College of Oriental Medicine, KyungHee University

Abstract
Skin aging is a natural phenomenon. There are internal and external factors of skin aging. The internal factor of skin aging is from the wearing down of the body over time. The external factors are more noticeable from habits such as smoking, excessive alcohol, malnutrition, and extended exposure to UV rays. Completely stopping skin from aging is impossible but one can slow down and treat external signs of skin aging. In western medicine, the following methods are used to reduce the appearance of skin aging: applying lotions and creams containing ingredients such as fruit acid, antioxidants, plant exracts, depigmentation, moisturizer, retinoids, and sun block; botulinum toxin injections; chemical peels, laser and other painful methods remove the top layer of skin to promote new skin growth; fillers are injected to increase soft tissue growth; surgery. In oriental medicine, the following methods are used: acupuncture into facial muscles which stimulates acupuncture point; applying topical treatments and cosmetics containing herbs are effective of preventing skin aging and wrinkles. Above all thing, medicine that helps maintain essence and blood in the skin can be fundamental.

2.

Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology 24(4):543-552, 2010

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Current Status of Herb-Drug Interaction Information and Information Database in Korea

 

Soo Jin Park, Young Kyu Kwon1, Jae Gook Shin

Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacogenomics Research Center, Inje University College of Medicine & Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital, 1:Division of Longevity and Biofunction Medicine, Pusan National University, School of Korean Medicine

Abstract
The objectives of this study are to examine the current status and problems of herb-drug interaction (HDI) information and information database in Korea and suggest the better way to establish useful HDI database. We collected HDI studies that published in Korea and analyzed according to objective, methods, selection criteria of herbs, number of study, correlation between study subject and frequently used herbal medicine (HM). Then we selected representative HM database on the internet made by Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA) among the several databases and analyzed its contents related to HDI. Several HDI studies were carried out from laboratory based research to clinical trials and HM databases have been developed for providing information about different aspects of traditional Korean medicine. But the information of HDI and information database are still far from practical applications because there are no coherence to select study subjects and methods among researchers. So, it is necessary to build up HDI database led by the government for providing systematic HDI information. HDI information database is expected to be able to provide useful evidence for health professionals in prescription and consultation to reduce the chance of adverse effects and improve the quality of medical care.

3.

Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology 24(4):553-558, 2010

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Review on Nutrient and Blood

 

Dong Myung Eom1,2, Ji Chung Song1,3, Hyun Jong Jung4, Heon Young Jeong1,2

1:Department of Classics, College of Oriental Medicine, 2:Research Center of Traditional Korean Medicine, 3:Professional Graduate School of Oriental Medicine, 4:Department of Diagnostics, College of Oriental Medicine, Wonkwang University

Abstract
Nutrient and Blood are really common conceptions in Traditional Korean Medicine(TKM). However, those are used in mixed. not only because of their common points but users who doesn`t have clear classifications beween them. Therfore, I will explain those owns by explaining origins, places of origons, pathway, circulations, organs related to them and color. In addition, I will try to explain thi things in common without conceptions of their own. As a result, the first, nutrient is what is originated from water and food at middle energizer and circulated in meridian vessel by control of spleen. The second, blood is what is originated from qi of water and food and circulated in blood vessel by control of heart and its color is red. The third, nutrient blood is what is originated from water and food or qi of water and food and circulated in meridian or blood vessel by control of spleen and heart. Also it is red and its function is nourishing human body. The name of Nutrient blood is a new term that I made and it is different from nutrient or blood. Also it is different from nutrient and blood. Nutrient blood is combination by conceptions, nutrient and blood is combination by word itself.

4.

Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology 24(4):559-565, 2010

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Study for Research Trends on Radioprotective Effects of Herbs

 

Soo Jin Lee

Department of Physiology, College of Oriental Medicine, Sangji University

Abstract
Cancer is already a well-recognized main cause of mortality and the incidence of cancer is increasing steadily. Because conventional treatment modalities for cancer accompanies severe side effects, traditional medicine has been considered as alternatives to reduce the adverse effects and its use has continued to rise in cancer therapy. This study aims to summarize and make a reference of radioprotective effects of herbs worldwide. In this process, this review surveyed all papers of radioprotective-focused studies using herbal medicine in PubMed database and finally 44 papers were included. The type of materials, formation of experiments, type of herbal medicine, their action and mechanisms, and type of cancer were analyzed. The number of studies on radioprotective effects of herbal medicine has increased since 2000. The main formation of experiments was clinical study and the portion was 45% and the proportion of the research using prescriptions was 51% and the research using herbal products was 25%. Herbs and prescriptions having the effects of tonifying and nourishment were used the most. Most of herbal medicine in this study can enhance immune function, increase anti-oxidant effect, regulate cell cycle and increase sensitivity to radiotherapy. This study will provide the useful information on development of herbal medicine having radioprotective effects.

5.

Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology 24(4):566-570, 2010

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Systemic Review on Forest Healing Journals

 

Seung Ho Sun, Seon Goo Lee1

Department of Oriental Internal Medicine, Oriental Hospital of Sangji University, 1:Department of Oriental Pathology, College of Oriental Medicine, Sangji University

Abstract
This review was conducted to investigate clinical trial trend, clinical effect, and study methods of forest healing. Literature search was performed using the search engines of eight electronic databases from inception to march 2010 without language limitation. The search terms were "forest healing", "forest experience", "forest therapy", "forest treatment", "clinical trial", and "clinical study". Inclusion criteria were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among all kinds of study searched about forest healing. Selection literature and data extraction was performed by authors(SH Sun and SG Lee) independently. Total three studies were selected finally. The methodological quality in all study was low because of poor reporting. Study indications were metal health, depression, self-esteem, and stress. The scale of studies was very small, which was the level of pilot study. There were no description for obtaining informed consent and being reviewed by Institutional Review Board (IRB), and could be any problems for statistical method in any studies. It is difficult to accept the fact that each studies had the significant effect for study indications in the results of studies. It is concluded that the evidence that health healing have a significant effect is insufficient. Further systematic and methodological study and well-designed clinical trial will be needed.

6.

Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology 24(4):571-579, 2010

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Study on the Organ Transplantation in the Oriental Medicine

 

Kyoung-Shin Kim, Soo Jin Lee1, Byoung-Soo Kim

Department of Physiology, College of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon University, 1:Department of Physiology, College of Oriental Medicine, Sangji University

Abstract
The advancement of medical technology has made it possible to treat various incurable diseases. Especially organ transplantation can give another life to the patients who have organ failure and could not find any other ways to treat their diseases. According to the development of medical technology and immunosuppressive drugs, the rate and extent of organ transplantation is increasing these days. New medical technologies like organ transplantation brought on critical issues and these have changed the way of thinking and morals that has been the fundamental rules in our society. Bioethics is already an important field of medicine and oriental medicine should investigate the problem caused by the development of medical technology and life science and should form a view of life in oriental medicine. Oriental medicine is East Asian traditional medicine based on "Huangdi-Neijing", constructed by the system of Jangfu and meridian. The traditional therapies of oriental medicine have completed a scientific system on the point of view that looks on human and nature equally. This process continued to form a new medical theory as the environment was changed and the new diseases were appeared since "Huangdi-Neijing" and "Shoganron" showed a new scope to investigate human and diseases. Therefore, it is important to develop the point of view of oriental medicine as the medical situation was changed. Oriental medicine has a holistic view that considers human as a little cosmos resonated by a big cosmos and regards the possibility to recover and to regulate the energy in our body. This theory is a basic idea of oriental philosophy. Oriental medicine focuses on the balance of yin and yang of the body and tries to harmonize the imbalance of yin and yang caused by the life style and environment. This can solve many problems that cannot be settled by modern medicine and this can accomplish the new paradigm of oriental medicine that is needed these days.

7.

Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology 24(4):580-585, 2010

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Antimicrobial Activity against Helicobacter pylori from the Korean Rice Liquor Fermented with Mulberry leaves(Morus Alba L.)

 

Jeung Suk Im1, Byung Hun Jeon3, Hyun Jong Jung4, Yun Jum Park5, Won Sin Kim1,2

1:Division of Natural Science Division of Life Science, 2:Institute of Biotechnology, 3:Department of Pathology, 4:Department of Diagnostics, College of Oriental Medicine, 5:Division of Horticulture and Pet Animal-Plant Science, Wonkwang University

Abstract
To develop a new traditional rice liquor by using Mulberry leaves, the optimal condition of fermentation was investigated by addition of different concentrations (1%, 3%, and 5%) of Mulberry leaves powder in the raw rice mash. The efficiency of ethanol production of all conditioned groups were not inhibited by addition Mulberry leaves. The acceptability and antimicrobial activity of the Mulberry leaves liquor with different concentrations of Mulberry leaves powder were tested. The 3% Mulberry leaves liquor showed the best acceptability in the sensory evaluation test and color test. The antimicrobial activity against Helicobacter pylori were increased according to added amount of Mulberry leaves. It was supposed that the antimicrobial activity were affected by phenolic compound extracted from Mulberry leaves with ethanol produced during the fermentation period. The results suggested that the Mulberry leaves can be useful source to develop a new traditional rice liquor.

8.

Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology 24(4):586-591, 2010

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Inhibitory Effect of Gallic acid on Production of Chemokine and Growth Factor in Mouse Macrophage Stimulated by Lipopolysaccharide

 

Wan Su Park

Department of Pathology, College of Oriental Medicine, Kyungwon University

Abstract
Chemokine and Growth Factor are major mediumtors of immuno-inflammatory pathway. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether productions of Chemokine and Growth Factor in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced mouse macrophage RAW 264.7 cells are modulated by Gallic acid (GA), which is easily founded in tannin-containing natural materials such as red wine, green tea, grape juice, and Corni Fructus. Productions of Chemokine and Growth Factor were analyzed by High-throughput Multiplex Bead based Assay with Bio-plex Suspension Array System based on xMAP (multi-analyte profiling beads) technology. At first, cell culture supernatant was obtained after treatment with LPS and GA for 24 hour. Then, the antibody-conjugated beads were added and incubated for 30 minutes. After incubation, detection antibody was added and incubated for 30 minutes. And Strepavidin-conjugated Phycoerythrin (SAPE) was added. After incubation for 30 minutes, the level of SAPE fluorescence was analyzed on Bio-plex Suspension Array System. Based on fluorescence intensity, concentrations of Chemokine and Growth Factor were determined. The results of the experiment are as follows. GA significantly inhibited the production of interferon-inducible protein (IP)-10, keratinocyte-derived chemokine(KC), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells at the concentration of 25, 50, 100, 200 uM (p<0.05). GA significantly inhibited the production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1) and macrophage-colony stimulating factor(M-CSF) in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells at the concentration of 50, 100, 200 uM (p<0.05). GA diminished the production of granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. But GA did not show the inhibitory effect on the production of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIP) and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2 in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that GA has the immuno-modulating activity related with its inhibitory effects on the production of IP-10, KC, MCP-1, VEGF, and M-CSF in LPS-induced macrophages.

9.

Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology 24(4):592-597, 2010

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Vasodilation of Ethanol Extract of Cinnamomi Ramulus via Voltage Dependent Ca2+ Channel Blockage

 

Jong Bong Kim, Heung Mook Shin

Department of Physiology, College of Oriental Medicine, Dongguk University

Abstract
Cinnamomi Ramulus is one of the medicinal plants that have been used to improve various diseases caused by insufficient blood circulation. This study was performed for the investigation of vasodilation efficacy ethanol extract of Cinnamomi Ramulus (CR). CR exhibited vascular relaxation against phenylephrine (PE, 10-6M)-, KCl- and NaF-induced contraction in rat thoracic aorta. In addition, its relaxation was endothelium-independent. Treatment of potassium channel blockers such as gilbenclamide (Gli, 10-5M), tetraethylammonium (TEA, 1 mM) and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, 0.2 mM) did not effect on the relaxation of CR. The relaxant effects were also not inhibited by pre-treatment of rat aorta with L-NAME (10-4M), methylene blue (10-5M), indomethacin (10-5M), and atropine (10-6M). However, nifedipine (10-5M), L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, in part attenuated the relaxation of CR (0.2 ㎎/㎖), but SK&F96365 (3×10-5M), receptor activated Ca2+ channel blocker and 2-APB (10-4M), store operated Ca2+ channel blocker did not affact dilation of CR. These findings suggest that the endothelium-independent relaxation effect of CR is partly related with inhibition of Ca2+ influx via voltage dependent Ca2+ channel.

10.

Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology 24(4):598-601, 2010

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Effects of the Combined-Preparation of Germinated Brown Rice, Cultured Mountain Ginseng and Longanae Arillus on Pentobarbital-induced Sleeping Time

 

Suk Heung Oh, Ki Wan Oh1, Hyoung Kwon Cho2, Jae Soon Eun3

College of Food Science, Woosuk University, 1:College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, 2:Hanpoong Pharmaceutical Company, 3:College of Pharmacy, Woosuk University

Abstract
This experiment was performed to investigate whether the combined-preparation of water extracts of germinated brown rice (WGR), water extracts of cultured mountain ginseng (WCG) and 70% ethanol extracts of Longanae Arillus (ELA) has hypnotic effects and/or enhances pentobarbital-induced sleep behaviors through the GABAergic system. The combined-preparation of WGR and WCG reduced sleep latency and prolonged sleep time induced by pentobarbital. ELA also reduced sleep latency and prolonged sleep time induced by pentobarbital. However, WGR or WCG itself did not induce sleep. The combined-preparation of WGR, WCG and ELA strongly reduced sleep latency and prolonged sleep time via chloride influx into primary cultured cerebellar granule cells. In conclusion, the combined-preparation of WGR, WCG and ELA augments pentobarbital-induced sleep behaviors through the modification of GABAergic system.

11.

Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology 24(4):602-609, 2010

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Effects of Gunbibosinhangam-tang and Gunbibosinhangam-tang-gamibang on Solid Tumor and Immune Cells in Mice

 

Seon A Lee, Seok Jae Ko, Seon Hye Eun, Hyun Ki Lee, Min Seob Ahn1, Young Mi Kwon2, Da Young Yoo3, Goo Moon

Department of Internal Medicine, 1:Department of Acupuncture & Moxibustion, 2:Department of Diagnostic Radiology, College of Oriental Medicine, Wonkwang University, 3:Department of Internal Medicine, Bucheon JaSeng Hospital of Oriental Medicine

Abstract
This study was carried out to investigate the anti-cancer effects of Gunbibosinhangam-tang (GBHTⅠ) and Gunbibosinhangam-tang-gamibang (GBHTⅡ, GBHTⅢ) on solid tumor and immune cells. The animals were divided into 4 groups ; Control, no treatment. GBHTⅠ, treatment with GBHT itself. GBHTⅡ, treatment with GBHT increased the quantity of Hedyotis Diffusae twice. GBHTⅢ, treatment with GBHT increased the quantity of Hedyotis Diffusae four times. We investigated the effects of GBHT on proliferation of solid tumor cells (S-180), thymocytes, splenocytes in vitro in order to examine cytotoxicity for S-180 and immuno-stimulating activities. The experiments that is about solid tumor weight and survival rate in tumor bearing mice were performed also. As compared with the control group, treatments with GBHTⅡ and GBHTⅢ suppressed the proliferation of S-180 effectively. Treatments with all experimental groups accelerated the proliferation of thymocytes and splenocytes significantly. In addition, GBHTⅢ was significantly decreased on solid tumor weight and increased on survival rate in tumor bearing mice. Based upon these results, we suggest that GBHT and GBHT-gamibang have both anti-cancer effects for S-180 and immuno-stimulating activities for thymocytes and splenocytes. Therefore, we conclude that GBHT and Hedyotis Diffusae is useful to treat the patients with cancer.

12.

Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology 24(4):610-615, 2010

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Effects of Medicinal Herbal Drink on Alcohol Metabolic Enzyme in Drunken Rats

 

Su Jung Hwang1,2, Hye Min Choi1,2, Hyun Jin Park3, Jin Sang Lee3, Dam Heo4, Mi Ryeo Kim1,2,3

1:R&D Team for the New Drug of Oriental Medicine (BK 21), 2:Department of Herbal Pharmacology, College of Oriental Medicine, Daegu Haany University, 3:Oriental Medicine Industry Support Center, 4:Omniherb Co. Ltd., and Dongwoodang Pharmacy Co., Ltd.

Abstract
Alcohol is the most widely psychoactive drug and has known in almost all civilization since ancient time. Recently increase consuming alcoholic beverages, alcohol is on of the major public health problems in the world. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) play important roles in the metabolism of alcohols and aldehydes. The drink consists of medicinal herbs, Puerariae Radix, Phyllostachyos Folium, Citri Pericarpium, Polygonati Rhizoma, Rehmanniae Rhizoma (Vinegar), which have been widely used in oriental medicine. This study was designed to investigate effects of medicinal herbal drink (MHD) on alcohol metabolism in drunken SD rats subjects. In experiment, rats were treated to ethanol (EtOH, 3 g/kg, PO) at 60 min. after saline (CON) or MHD (1 ml/kg, PO) administration. The blood alcohol concentration (BAC), blood acetaldehyde concentration (BALC) activities of ADH, ALDH, AST and ALT were significantly decreased in MHD group than in control group as a time-dependent manner. And drinking water volume in MHD group with duplicate treatment, were significantly decreased than in CON group. These results suggested that MHD intake could give an influence upon the reduction in BAC and BALC may alleviate acute ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity by altering alcohol metabolic enzyme activities.

13.

Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology 24(4):616-623, 2010

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Stimulation of the Immune Response by Herbal Formulas for Wind-Cold and Heat Pain Symptom

 

Da Young Jung, Hye Kyung Ha, Ho Young Lee, Jin Ah Lee, Jun Kyoung Lee, Dae Sun Huang, Hyeun Kyoo Shin

Herbal Medicine EBM Research Center, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine

Abstract
Three herbal formulas (Bangpungtongsung-san, Ohyaksungi-san, and Ojeok-san) for wind-cold and heat pain symptom were applied to investigate the immunological activities on antigen (Ag)-specific or Ag-non-specific immune responses in murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) and ovalbumin (OVA)-immunized mice. This study was carried out in nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in RAW 264.7 cells and cellular proliferation in mouse splenocytes according to three herbal formulas. C57BL/6 mice were immunized intraperitonially with OVA/aluminium (100 ㎍/200 ㎍/mouse) on day 1, 8, and 15. Three herbal formulas were administrated to mice orally for 3 weeks from day 1. On day 22, OVA-, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-, and concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated splenocyte proliferation and antibodies (OVA-specific antibodies of the IgG, lgG1, and total IgM classes) in plasma were measured. Ohyaksungi-san increased NO synthesis in RAW 264.7 cells. Ojeok-san and Ohyaksungi-san significantly enhanced cellular proliferation by LPS and Con A in splenocytes from OVA-immunized mice (p<0.001). Three herbal formulas for wind-cold and heat pain symptom also significantly enhanced plasma OVA-specific IgG, IgG1, and total IgM levels compared with the OVA/Alum group. These results suggested that three herbal formulas for wind-cold and heat pain symptom could be used as stimulator of immune response.

14.

Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology 24(4):624-629, 2010

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Cytoprotective and Anti-inflammatory Effects of Nardostachys jatamansi Water Extract Via Expression of HO-1

 

Chul Park, Min Zheng1, Eun A Seo2, Kang Beom Kwon, Do Gon Ryu

Deparment of Physiology, School of Oriental Medicine & Resaerch Center of Traditional Korean Medicine, Wonkwang University, 1:Department of Medical Science, College of Medicine University of Ulsan, 2:Deparment of Food and Nutrition, College of Human Environmental Science, Wonkwang University

Abstract
Nardostachys jatamansi water extract (NJ) has long been used for the treatment of inflammation-and immune-mediated disorders in the oriental countries. However, its site of action and pharmacological mechanism are not fully investigated. In this study, the authors tried to explorethe cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory actions of NJ. First of all, NJ has no harmful effects on viability of neuronal cell line HT22 cells in the dose range of 300 mg/ml. On the contrary, it shows cytoprotective effects on the cells treated with reactive oxygen species H2O2. Probably the cytoprotective effects of NJ might be caused by its ability to induce well known cytoprotective gene hem oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Furthermore, NJ shows inhibitory effects on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and NO production which are known to destroy the integrity of both cells and tissues. It also inhibits potent proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) production. The blocking effects of NJ on cytopathic and proinflammatory actions of LPS might be caused by the induction of cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory genes HO-1 in macrophages cell line RAW 264.7 cells. The results in this study suggest NJ could be used for the amelioration of inflammation which is underlying mechanism responsible for most chronic diseases.

15.

Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology 24(4):630-637, 2010

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Effects of Lonicerae Flos on the 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU)-induced Rat Hypothyroidism

 

Sae Kwang Ku, Young Joon Lee1

Department of Anatomy and Histology, 1:Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Oriental Medicine, Daegu Haany University

Abstract
The object of this study was to evaluate the effect of Lonicerae Flos, aqueous extracts of the dried flower bud part of Lonicera japonica on the 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU)-induced rat hypothyroidism. Aqueous extracts of Lonicerae Flos (LF yield = 23.80%) were administered, once day for 42 days from 2 weeks before start of PTU treatment as an oral dose of 500 and 250 mg/kg (body weight), and hypothyroidism was induced by daily subcutaneous treatment of PTU 10 mg/kg for 28 days. The changes on the body weight, thyroid gland weights, serum thyroid hormone – thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4), serum lipid profiles – total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglyceride were observedwith liver antioxidant defense system – lipid peroxidation, H2O2, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and serum asparte aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) analysis. Results were compared with Levothyroxine (LT4) 0.5 mg/kg treated rats. As results of PTU treatment, marked decreases of body weights, serum thyroid hormone levels and triglyceride contents, liver H2O2 and SOD activities were observed with increases of serum AST and HDL contents, liver CAT activities, thyroid gland weight. However, these PTU induced hypothyroidism were dose-dependently inhibited by treatment of LF extracts, and LF extracts effectively regulated the hypothyroidism related changes on the antioxidant defense system. The results obtained in this study suggest that LF extracts have favorable effects on the thyroid hormone productions with beneficial effects on the hypothyroidism mediated by the modulatory effects on the antioxidant defense system.

16.

Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology 24(4):638-645, 2010

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Effects of Taeumjowe-tang-gagambang on the Glycometabolism and Lipidmetabolism in the Liver Tissue of Diet-induced Obesity Mice

 

Hsiao. Mei Hui, Seong Gyu Ko1, Chan Yong Jun, Jong Hyeong Park, You Kyung Choi

Department of Orinetal Internal Medicine, College of Oriental Medicine, Kyungwon University, 1:Preventive Medicine, College of Oriental Medicine, Kyunghee University

Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Taeeumjowuitanggagam-bang (TJV) on the mRNA expression of Sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs), Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and Interlukin-6 (IL-6) that are considered to play an important role in lipid and glucose metabolism. For diet-induced obese studies, we split mice into 2 groups. The low fat diet group (LFD, n=8) were supplied with general diet for 10 weeks and the high fat diet group (HFD, n=18) were supplied with 60 ㎉% fat diet for 10 weeks. And then The HFD group, the diet-induced obese group, were divided into 3 groups ; a group supplied with normal saline, a group treated with TJV 200 mg/kg and a group treated with TJV 500 mg/kg. They were treated orally with TJV and measured their body weight every day during 10 weeks. After that, we measured mRNA expressions of TNF-α, IL-6 and SREBP-1c in liver, and blood concentrations of glucose, total cholesterol and triglyceride too. The results are as follows. The TJV reduced glucose and total cholesterol of blood concentration. The TJV reduced the mRNA expressions of TNF-α and SREBPs in liver. However, We couldn't find the TJV effects on the mRNA expression of IL-6, triglyceride blood concentration, and body weight among groups. The TJV stained liver tissue less red than control group. These results suggest that TJV may be effective for regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism in liver.

17.

Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology 24(4):646-652, 2010

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Anti-obesity Effects and Mechanism of Original and Modified Gambejaeseup-tang in Female Rats with Diet-induced Obesity

 

Sun Min Park, Da Sol Kim, Sun A Kang, Jung Bok Lee1

Department of Food and Nutrition, College of Natural Science, Basic Science Institutes, Hoseo University, 1:Sonimedi

Abstract
Gambejaeseup-tang (GBJST) have recently been used as an anti-obesity herbal medicine but their effect and mechanism of action have not been studied. We modified ingredients of GBJST based on the previous experiments about exploring herbs to suppress triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We investigated the effects of modified GBJST on energy, glucose and lipid homeostasis using female rats with diet-induced obesity and their action mechanism was also determined. Rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) were divided into 3 groups: rats in each group received 0.2 or 2 g water extracts of modified GBJST (L-GBJST or H-GBJST) or 2 g cellulose per kg body weight (a negative control) on a daily basis. A further group was fed a low-fat diet (LFD) as a positive control. We found that modified GBJST dose-dependently decreased body weight and mesenteric and retroperitoneal fat more than the control. This decrease was due to the reduction in energy intake and the increase of energy expenditure. HFD increased fat oxidation more than LFD and modified GBJST further increased fat oxidation as a major energy source more than the control in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, H-GBJST improved glucose tolerance without changing serum insulin levels during an oral glucose tolerance test. H-GBJST also suppressed the increase of serum total and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels by HFD. In conclusion, modified GBJST have a good anti-obesity effect by decreasing energy intake and increasing energy expenditure mainly as fat in female rats with diet-induced obesity. It also improves glucose tolerance and lipid metabolism.

18.

Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology 24(4):653-660, 2010

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Acne-remedy Effects of Extract Mixture of Pulsatillae Radix and Cicadidae Periostracum

 

Jong Pil Lim

College of Pharmacy, Woosuk University

Abstract
Pulsatillae Radix and Cicadidae Periostracum have long been used for treatment of injuries, inflammations or itchiness in Korea. This study was carried out to examine the acne-remedy effects of the mixture made with equal parts of Pulsatillae Radix extract and Cicadidae Periostracum extract (PRCP) compared with 2%-benzoyl peroxide (Standard) used commercially as anti-acne. The results showed the mixture (PRCP) was more effective than each crude drug extract. The 10%-PRCP showed significant antimicrobial activity against Propionibacterium acnes, the major cause of acne, and also showed significant inhibition from type 1 5α-reductase (5αR), another cause of acne, And the cream made with PRCP demonstrated anti-sebum and acne-improvement effects on examinee's facial skin.

19.

Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology 24(4):661-667, 2010

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Effects of Mixed Medicinal Herbs on Adipogenesis and Apoptosis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

 

Su Jung Hwang, In Soon Shin, Mi Ryeo Kim

Department of Herbal Pharmacology, College of Oriental Medicine, & R&D Team for the New Drug of Oriental Medicine (BK 21), Daegu Haany University

Abstract
Astragali Radix (AR) has been used in traditional medicinal herb, which is known to tonify the qi and blood. It has been asserted to be a tonic that can improve the function of the lungs, adrenal glands and the gastrointestinal tract, increase metabolism, promote healing and reduce fatigue. Also, Plantago asiatica (PA) has the anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, antitussive, cardiac, diuretic, expectorant, haemostatic effects, though it is considered to be less powerful than the seed. Recent research is showing that it is promising in lowering cholesterol and controlling diabetes. Obesity is characterized at the cellular level by an increase in the number and size of adipocytes differentiated from fibroblastic preadipocytes in adipose tissue. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 3 to 7 extracts of mixed medicinal herbs (water and ethanol extract of Astragali Radix; ARW and ARE, water and ethanol extract of Plantago asitica; PAW and PAE, and those mixed extracts; ARW+PAE, ARW+PAW and ARE+PAE) on adipogenesis and apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by MTT assay, Oil-Red-O staining and TUNEL assay. And then, we determined total contents of phenolic compounds and flavonoid compounds in mixed herbal extracts. These result showed that herbal extracts (ARW, PAE and ARW+PAE) affected on adipogenesis and apoptosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes among 3 to 7 extracts tested. Especially herbal mixed extracts (ARW+PAE) had the highest inhibition on differentiation of preadipocytes and lipoid accumulation of maturing adipocytes. And it did not affect cell viability of mature adipocytes, but herbal mixed extracts (ARW+PAE) increased apoptosis in mature adipocytes, as proved by highest concentration 200 ㎍/㎖ using TUNEL assay. In addition, contents of total phenoilc compounds and flavonoids showed the highest level in ARE+PAE and PAE than ARW. These results suggest that this main target for adipocyte functions could be effective in improving the metabolic syndrome including obesity.

20.

Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology 24(4):668-673

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Comparative Study of 3 kinds of Black Soybean on Murine Immune Cells

 

Seung Yong Seo, Jinye Pang, Jae Soon Eun

Department of Pharmacy, Woosuk University

Abstract
The purpose of this research was the comparative study of 3 kinds of black soybean on murine immune cells. The 3 kinds of black soybean are Glycine max Merr. with inner color-yellow (GY), Glycine max Merr. with inner color-greenish (GG) and Rhynchosia volubilis Lour. (RV). All of the black soybean increased the viability of murine thymocytes in vitro. The combined treatment of GY or GG and mitogen did not affect the viability of splenic T- and B-lymphocytes compared with mitogen-treated group, but the combined treatment of RV and mitogen increased their action compared with mitogen-treated group. Also, the 3 kinds of black soybean were given p.o. once a day for 7 days, respectively. RV increased the population of thymic-CD8+, splenic-CD8+ and B220+ cells in vivo. Furthermore, GY and GG did not affect the phagocytic activity and the production of nitric oxide in peritoneal macrophages in vitro, but RV enhanced their action. These results suggest that immunopotentiative action of Rhynchosia volubilis Lour. is more potent than their of Glycine max Merr.

21.

Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology 24(4):674-680, 2010

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Inhibitory Effect of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi Hexane Extract on Melanin Biosynthesis

 

Dae Sung Kim1, Gyu Su Han1, Byoung Kook Jeon1, Won Hong Woo1,2, Yeun Ja Mun3,4

1:Department of Herbal Resources, Professional Graduate School of Oriental Medicine, Wonkwang University, 2:Research Center of Traditional Korean Medicine, 3:Department of Anatomy, College of Oriental Medicine, Wonkwang University, 4:Institute of Environmental Science

Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) on the process of melanogenesis. Cell viability of B16F10 cells was measured by MTT assay and melanin content was assessed using the method of Hosoi with some modifications. Methanol extract of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (MFLL) significantly inhibited melanin synthesis in a concentration-dependent manner, and it reduced the activity of tyrosinase, the rate-limiting melanogenic enzyme. Additionally, α-melanocyte stimulation hormone (α-MSH)-induced hyperpigmentation was down-regulated by MFLL. MFLL was fractionated by organic solvent. In the present study, Hexane extract of Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (HFLL) inhibited tyrosinase activity and melanin production of B16F10 cells in the absence or presence of α-MSH. Ethyl acetate, butanol and water layers did not affect tyrosinase activity and melanin production. Meanwhile ethyl acetate, butanol and water layers showed DPPH free radical scavenging activity. These results suggest that extract of FLL could be used as functional biomaterial in developing a skin whitening agent having the antioxidant activity.

22.

Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology 24(4):681-687, 2010

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Enhanced Neurite Outgrowth of Dorsal Root Ganglion Sensory Neurons after Sibjeondaebo-tang Treatment

 

Ku Birm Kwon, Uk Namgung

Laboratory of Neurophysiology, Department of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon University

Abstract
Sibjeondaebo-tang (SJDBT) is an oriental medicinal prescription for the treatments of diverse symptoms including neurological disorders. In order to investigate its potential role for neural regulation following nerve injury, neurite outgrowth of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in culture was investigated. In DRG neurons which were preconditioned by sciatic nerve injury, neurite outgrowth was enhanced by SJDBT treatment. When preconditioned DRG neurons were co-cultured with astrocytes prepared from injured spinal cord tissue, neurite outgrowth was similarly facilitated by SJDBT. Astrocytes in co-culture showed more intense signals of vimentin protein by SJDBT compared to saline control. Sukjihwang (SJH), a conventional herbal component of SJDBT prescription, did not induce any significant changes in neurite extension of DRG neurons compared to control cells. These data suggest that SJDBT may be the therapeutic agent for nervous system disorders related to nerve damage.

23.

Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology 24(4):688-695, 2010

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Effect of Acupressure at the GB20 on the Electroencephalogram and concentration

 

Yang Shin Han, Min Sun Song1, Soo Jin Lee2, Chan Hun Choi

Department of Physiology, 1:Department of Nursing, College of Oriental Medicine, Dongshin University, 2:Department of Physiology, College of Oriental Medicine, Sangji University

Abstract
The aim of this study is to examine the change of Electroencephalogram (EEG) and concentration by practicing acupressure at the GB20 on normal humans. We selected 36 children and divided them into GB20 group and SP6 group. Electrode was measured in Fp1 and Fp2, and EEG was measured before and after practicing acupressure at the GB20 and SP6. Sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) increased significantly at the GB20 group (p=0.043). M-β wave increased significantly at the GB20 group (p=0.022). H-β wave increased significantly at the GB20 group (p=0.040). γ wave increased significantly at the GB20 group (p=0.021). (SMR+M-β)/θ ratio increased significantly at the GB20 group (p=0.023). β/θ ratio increased significantly at the GB20 group (p=0.020). On the other hand, α and θ wave did not have significant changes. Through this experiment, we conclude that acupressure at the GB20 on normal humans could increase the ability of concentration.

24.

Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology 24(4):696-701, 2010

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Disease Pattern Identification in Oriental Medicine and Herb Medicine treatment for Acute Hepatitis A with Jaundice: Case Series of 3 Patients

 

Dong Woung Kim

Department of Internal Medicine, College of Oriental Medicine, Wonkwang University

Abstract
Hepatitis A is acute hepatitis caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), HAV is a non-enveloped 27nm, heat-, acid, and ether-resistant RNA virus in the Picornavirus family. HAV is transmitted primarily through fecal-oral route and the incidence rate of hepatitis A is closely related to environmental hygiene and socioeconomic condition. Recent improvements in sanitation, public health policies, and socioeconomic development in South Korea have had great impact on the incidence of hepatitis A, which natural production of antibodies against HAV and the prevalence of HAV antibody has decreased. However, during the past ten years, symptomatic HAV infection substantially increased among juveniles and young adults in their twenties and thirties, and hepatitis A has become one of the most common acute hepatitis. Though there has been no report on treatment of hepatitis A with jaundice by oriental medicine in South Korea, many studies and case reports on treatment of icteric hepatitis of which main symptom is jaundice have been published in other countries. To treat patients diagnosed with hepatitis or suspected cases in oriental medicine hospitals, we need to have concerned about hepatitis A. This report is disease pattern identification in oriental medicine and treatments of 3 patients who were diagnosed with acute hepatitis A and treated in oriental medicine hospital.

25.

Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology 24(4):702-706, 2010

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Clinical Study on Hepatic Encephalopathy

 

Do Gyoung Kim, Hyun Yun Jeong, Jae Wook Lee, Yoon Ri Shin, Cheol Kyung Sin, Kyung Min Kim, Young Kyun Kim, Yong Tae Lee1, Jung Nam Kwon2

Department of Internal Medicine, 1:Department of Physiology, College of Oriental Medicine, Dongeui University, 2:Department of Clinical Oriental Medicine, Pusan National University School of Oriental Medicine

Abstract
The clinical manifestation of Hepatic encephalopathy is personality change, vacant behavior, lethargy, flapping tremor, muscle twitching, noisy, abusive, violent, coma. The purpose of this clinical study was done to report the improvement of hepatic encephalopathy after oriental medical treatment (herb-med, acupuncture, moxibustion). We applied Ukieum-ja and Sopungsungi-won to patient who had liver cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. We examined the Change of CBC, LFT and Clinical Manifestation to evaluate the effectiveness of oriental medical treatment. We observed that oriental medical complex treatment decreased symtoms and improved general condition of a patient. So we report this clinical study to be helpful in treating patients of hepatic encephalopathy.

26.

Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology 24(4):707-715, 2010

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Effects of Meridian Massage on Menopausal Symptoms, Mood, E2, and Pain in Post Menopausal Women with Hemodialysis: A Quasi-experimental Study

 

Kyung Hee Yang, Ok Rae Park1, Kum-sook Park

Department of Nursing, Wonkwang Health Science University, 2:AKR, RN, Department of Nursing, Wonkwang Medical Center

Abstract
In this study, meridian massage is developed and applied on post menopausal Women with Hemodialysis to identify the effects of Menopausal Symptoms, Mood, Estradiol(E2), and Pain. The study was a nonequivalent control group pre-post test Quasi-experimental design. There were 17 people in the experimental group and 17 people in the control group. Meridian massage was performed for 4 weeks, 3 times a week for 20 minutes each sessions. The data were collected at pretest and posttest. SPSS win. 11.5 program was used. Fisher's exact test and Mann Whitney U-test were used to analyze the Pre-treatment homogeneity. Wilcoxon Sign Rank test was used to find out the effectiveness within each groups. Mann Whitney U-test was used in comparing between the two groups. After meridian massage, there were significant differences in menopausal symptoms in experimental group(z=-2.583, p=.010) and pain between groups(U=86.00, p=.040). E2 was not effective in both groups. The mood was effective in both groups, since the mood had influenced by interviewer’s collecting data. Meridian massage was effective in alleviating menopausal symptoms and pain of post menopausal women with Hemodialysis, but it is desirable to perform meridian massage to the patients for enough time.

27.

Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology 24(4):716-721, 2010

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Study for Serum Cholesterol Level with Patients on Premature Examination of Stroke- Based on National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel Ⅲ-

 

Mun Won Chang, Seong Hwan Choi, Hyun Kyung Jo

Department of Oriental Internal Medicine, Oriental Hospital of Daejeon University

Abstract
The aim of this study is to investigate the serum cholesterol level of patients who visited Oriental Hospital of Daejeon University to predict stroke, in Korea. In the time of period June 15th 2009 to June 20th 2009, 45 patients visited Oriental Hospital of Daejeon University to check the risk of stroke. We checked their blood to find out the serum cholesterol level and investigated their past history according to Adult Treatment Panel Ⅲ guidelines. Male has higher risk of coronary heart disease than the female. The average of the total serum cholesterol of the participants was lower than the average of Korean. The percentage of the participants who have less HDL-cholesterol than 40 mg/dL was 33.3% and this result is less than the average percentage of Korean. Only 8.9% of the participants were placed in group who need to use lipid-lowering drug to reduce the lipoprotein density. Checking the characters of the person is necessary to use lipid-lowering drugs. This study can be the baseline data of actual condition of serum cholesterol level.

28.

Korean Journal of Oriental Physiology & Pathology 24(4):722-726, 2010

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Neurotic Characteristics of Sasang Types with SCL-90-R

 

Han Chae, Soo Jin Lee1, So Jung Park, Byung Joo Kim, Jin Woo Hong1, Min Woo Hwang1, Sang Nam Lee2, Chang Hyun Han3, Young Kyu Kwon

Department of Longevity and Biofunctional Medicine, School of Korean Medicine, 1:Sasang and Personalized Medicine Research Center, RIKOM, PNU, Pusan National University, 2:Department of Oriental Medicine, Daegu Haany University, 3:Korean Institute of Oriental Medicine

Abstract
This study was to examine the neuroticism related to psychological characteristics of each Sasang types using SCL-90-R with 107 students from College of Oriental Medicine, Daeguhaani University. We did ANOVA analysis with seven neuroticism-related sub-scales and found significant differences in somatization (F=3.701, p=0.028) and hostility (F=4.396, p=0.015). The post-hoc analysis showed that the So-Yang type (23.17±8.95) has significantly (p=0.048, p=0.012) higher score than Tae-Eum (19.25±5.97) and So-Yang(19.25±5.76) type in somatization. In hostility, the So-yang type (11.31±3.98) has significantly (p=0.011, p=0.015) higher score than Tae-Eum (8.80±2.61) and So-Eum (9.44±3.35) type. The ANOVA analysis with female subjects found significant differences in anxiety (F=3.88, p=0.03) and hostility (F=5.04, p=0.01). The post-hoc analysis showed that the So-Yang type (20.36±5.44, 12.36±3.82) has significantly (p=0.043, p=0.015) higher score compared to the So-Eum type (15.46±3.36, 8.69±2.06) in anxiety and hostility. The profile analysis using seven neuroticism-related subscalesof SCL-90-R did not revealed significant differences (Flatness with Greenhouse-Geisser (F=202.347, p=0.0001), Parallelism with Greenhouse-Geisser (F=1.428, p=0.191)). We discussed the implications of neuroticism in Sasang typology and SCL-90-R somatization, anxiety and hostility scales. This study showed opposite results compared to the previous studies that So-Eum type has higher neuroticism compared to the So-Yang and Tae-Eum type. The reason for this discrepancy between this and previous studies, and differences between male and female should be examined thoroughly with larger and balanced sample.